Wk 4 LA 3 Instructional design Model Reflection

Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction are two instructional design frameworks used while designing the course “Managing Happiness” with the specified learning objectives. The first instructional design that is obvious within the course is Bloom’s Taxonomy.  Bloom’s Taxonomy is a hierarchical model that classifies learning objectives into different cognitive levels. The ascending order of complexity are Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating.

At the start of each module, the course instructor will ask students to recall an event that triggers happiness involving prior experience or knowledge from long-term memory. Then, students will be introduced to various definitions of happiness and understand its function in everyday life. To prompt analysis of different perspectives on happiness, design activities that include readings, discussions, and reflections on cultural and philosophical viewpoints. The instructor will then apply the science of the mind, body, and community to manage emotions and behaviors for greater happiness. Create practical exercises and simulations where learners can apply psychological and community-building principles to manage their emotions and behaviors effectively. Students will also learn how genetic, social, and economic factors influence their happiness. Videos, case studies, and scenarios will be presented to encourage learners to analyze the impact of these factors on individual happiness. Critical thinking and online surveys will be used to encourage discussions and personal reflections. Learners will be able to recognize the differences between short-term and long-term happiness regarding success and achievement. Facilitate discussions or debates where learners can evaluate the impact of success and achievement on short-term and long-term happiness. At the end of each module, students will create a personalized happiness portfolio incorporating their goals and desires. Project-based assessments and creative assignments will be used to reflect their understanding of the content. Finally, students will develop and present their happiness strategies for different life stages. This could involve a written reflection, a presentation, or a multimedia project.

The second instructional design is Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. It’s a systematic approach to instructional design that focuses on the essential elements that facilitate learning. At the beginning of each module, the facilitator presents an attention-grabbing introduction to spark interest in the topic of happiness. This could be a thought-provoking quote, a relevant anecdote, or a multimedia presentation. Next, the learning objectives are clearly stated at the beginning of each module to provide a roadmap for the learners. In each module, students are connected to new information about happiness, relating it to their existing knowledge or experiences, reinforcing the relevance of the content. The facilitator then delivers content related to diverse definitions of happiness, genetic, social, and economic influences, using various instructional methods such as lectures, discussions, and multimedia. Frequent support is provided to learners in understanding and applying the science of the mind, body, and community by offering guidance, resources, and examples. Within each module, there are multiple surveys and reflections that students are required to apply their knowledge in practical scenarios, fostering hands-on experience in managing emotions and behaviors for greater happiness. Instructors and facilitators then provide constructive feedback on learners’ performance, aiding in their understanding and improvement. Surveys and reflections also act as assessments to evaluate learners’ understanding and application of concepts related to happiness, ensuring the achievement of learning objectives. Finally, each module concludes with a summary and connections to real-life situations by developing a happiness portfolio, emphasizing the practical application of the knowledge gained where students can utilize such portfolios as strategies in the real world.

Within the course of “Managing Happiness,” it is beneficial to integrate Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. This approach provides a comprehensive and structured framework that ensures a well-rounded and engaging learning experience for the students. By utilizing Bloom’s Taxonomy, instructors can focus on developing higher-order thinking skills in their students, while Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction provides a step-by-step guide to designing effective instructional materials. By combining these two theories, instructors can create a course that not only meets the learning objectives but also fosters critical thinking and long-term retention of the material.


Arshavskiy, M. (2021, May 12). Leveraging Gagné’s nine events of instruction. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/leveraging-gagnes-nine-events-of-instruction

Bloom’s taxonomy. Centre for Teaching Excellence. (2023, November 14). Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/catalogs/tip-sheets/blooms-taxonomy#:~:text=Bloom’s%20Taxonomy%20comprises%20three%20learning,of%20the%20Taxonomy%20are%20hierarchical.

Dee Fink, L. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning . Retrieved from http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf

Gagné, R. M. (1965). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction (1st ed.). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice. 41(4), 212-218. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2

Siemens, G. (2002). Instructional design in elearning . Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/InstructionalDesign.htm

Wk3 LA 6 Online Teaching and Learning Context

The educational context I want to design for an online teaching and learning experience is appropriate interaction with the autistic population during an emergency visit. In designing an online teaching and learning experience focused on interacting with people living with autism in the emergency department, I will integrate constructivism and connectivism to foster a comprehensive and participant-driven understanding. The course will commence with a compelling introductory video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AemMt3lG4iM) highlighting the necessity of understanding this marginalized population. Participants will be encouraged to reflect on their recent encounters with autistic patients, eliciting personal feelings and insights. The constructivist approach will prompt learners to build new knowledge based on their unique understandings. Drawing from the H-CARDD Best Practice Series, including videos like https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvFLyOY3Fnc and the toolkit “Improving Emergency Care for Adults with Developmental Disabilities,” the course will incorporate content from the Canadian Academy of Health Science, Autism Speaks, The Queensland Centre for Intellectual and Developmental Disability, and other reputable sources. Emphasis will be placed on various technological aides, sensory-sensitive needs, and communication techniques within acute care settings. The overarching goal is to heighten healthcare providers’ awareness of the unique needs of the autistic population and establish a secure environment for both healthcare providers and patients during emergency visits. The experience will feature interactive questions, pre- and post-learning surveys, and hands-on practice using online ACC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication) tools to gauge participants’ understanding and facilitate skill development.


Clinicians and service providers. CAMH. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.camh.ca/en/professionals/professionals–projects/hcardd/health-care-resources/clinicians-and-service-providers

Connectivism learning theory. Western Governors University. (2022, October 25). Retrieved from https://www.wgu.edu/blog/connectivism-learning-theory2105.html

Connectivism (Siemens, Downes). Learning Theories. (2017, February 4). Retrieved from https://learning-theories.com/connectivism-siemens-downes.html

Kovanovic, v., Joksimovic, S., Gasevic, D., Siemens, G., and Hatala, M. (2015). What public media reveals about MOOCs: A systematic analysis of news reports. British Journal of Educational Technology. 46(33), 510-527. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12277

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3-10.

YouTube. (2017, July 17). CAMH study on autism and emergency departments. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AemMt3lG4iM

Week 3 Learning Activity 5 – Learning Theories Analysis

Constructivism is a learning theory that emphasizes the active role of the learner in constructing their understanding and knowledge. In the course “Managing Happiness,” the facilitator uses the constructivist approach to involve learners in reflecting on their experiences, sharing personal insights, and collaboratively exploring strategies for cultivating happiness. The course incorporates different activities that stimulate voluntary muscle movements involved in smiling. For instance, imagine holding a pencil or pen in your mouth for 15 seconds. The muscle groups involved in this activity are the same ones involved in smiling, and by simulating a smile, you can change your mood and feel happier. The course content encourages self-directed learning and personal meaning-making around the concept of happiness.

Connectivism is a learning theory focusing on the idea that knowledge and learning are distributed across people and technology networks. In “Managing Happiness,” the facilitator uses the connectivist approach to leverage social networks, online resources, and collaborative tools to share diverse perspectives on happiness. The course content includes watching YouTube videos and answering multiple-choice questions related to the content. Additionally, regular online surveys are conducted to gather students’ thoughts on the meaning of happiness and the benefits of being grateful. All the surveys and answers help students build their unique happiness portfolio. The course encourages participants to connect with others, share success stories, and learn from various experiences to enhance their understanding of happiness through reflections on others’ stories.


It’s inspiring to see how Integrating Connectivism into teaching and learning practices has become a transformative force, aligning seamlessly with technological advancements that have become an integral part of our lives. Nursing education that embraces Connectivism recognizes the profound impact of technology on the learning process and acknowledges the opportunities it provides for learners to take charge of their education. One of the key strengths of Connectivism lies in its emphasis on diversity of opinions as a cornerstone of learning and knowledge. Many nursing curricula foster an environment where students are encouraged to explore various perspectives, enhancing their critical thinking skills and preparing them for the complex and multifaceted challenges they may encounter in the real world. Incorporating social media, online networks, and information databases facilitates collaboration and discussion, allowing for a richer understanding of decision-making, problem-solving, and information interpretation. Both experienced nurses and students are accessing social media for new and up-to-date information regularly; online platforms connect and nurture both nurses and students without geographical boundaries (especially during the last few years of the pandemic). Furthermore, understanding learning is more important than knowing because of the constantly changing information climate.

The principles of Connectivism put forth by Siemens and Downes underscore the significance of connections in the learning process. This perspective recognizes that learning is not confined to individuals but extends to non-human appliances and the collective intelligence in digital networks. Such an inclusive approach mirrors the collaborative nature of nursing practice, emphasizing the need for continual learning and nurturing connections. The eight principles of Connectivism further accentuate the adaptability of this pedagogical framework. By acknowledging that learning is an evolving process and that the focus should be on acquiring the skills to navigate and connect information, nursing education can better prepare students for a healthcare landscape where knowledge is continually evolving.

As educators, it’s crucial to consider the potential pros and cons of online teaching and learning practices grounded in Connectivism within the nursing curriculum. On the positive side, the flexible and accessible nature of online platforms allows students to engage with diverse perspectives and information sources. This aligns with Connectivism’s emphasis on the ever-changing information climate, where accurate and up-to-date knowledge is paramount. Nevertheless, challenges such as the digital divide, potential information overload, and the need for effective online communication skills must be addressed. As educators, we should ensure that students develop the ability to discern reliable information online and that the limitations of virtual interactions do not compromise the benefits of collaboration.

In conclusion, the nursing curriculum benefits significantly from a connectivist approach to online teaching and learning. By leveraging the principles of Connectivism, we can cultivate a learning environment that mirrors the dynamic and interconnected nature of contemporary healthcare. However, thoughtful consideration of potential challenges is crucial to harness the full potential of Connectivism in preparing nursing professionals for the complexities of their evolving roles.


Connectivism learning theory. Western Governors University. (2022, October 25). Retrieved from https://www.wgu.edu/blog/connectivism-learning-theory2105.html

Connectivism (Siemens, Downes). Learning Theories. (2017, February 4). Retrieved from https://learning-theories.com/connectivism-siemens-downes.html

Kovanovic, v., Joksimovic, S., Gasevic, D., Siemens, G., and Hatala, M. (2015). What public media reveals about MOOCs: A systematic analysis of news reports. British Journal of Educational Technology. 46(33), 510-527. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12277

LA # 3, constructivism

Constructivism theory suggests that students learn best when they construct their own knowledge through experience. As educators, we create opportunities for students to actively engage in learning by providing problem-solving and inquiry-based learning activities that allow them to discover and transform information through experience. Within Constructivism theory, students are active agents in knowledge acquisition through assimilation (fitting new information into an existing schema) or accommodation (revising and redeveloping an existing schema using newly acquired information).

In my current teaching and learning practice, we use inquiry-based learning (IBL), problem-based learning (PBL), reciprocal teaching, and cooperative learning to maximize learners’ participation. We also have multidisciplinary members participate in real-case scenario simulations, where pre-readings are distributed before the simulation, and participants are encouraged to lead the case scenario. All simulations are researched and evidence-based, and our goal is to create a harmonious, safe environment that allows participants to reenact the case scenario as close to reality as possible.

Constructivism has several advantages, including making content more relevant to students’ future practice, encouraging critical thinking and problem-solving skills, promoting active engagement and participation, and fostering a deep understanding of concepts. It also facilitates social interaction and collaboration in learning, which is essential in healthcare. Constructivism allows students to benefit from diverse perspectives and experiences within the group and enhances communication and teamwork skills. It also promotes leadership skills by encouraging students to be the “lead” of the simulation while solving a real-world problem and integrating knowledge from different areas, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of healthcare.

However, constructivism has disadvantages, such as designing and implementing effective PBL. Facilitators may require more time and effort to prepare resources and content suitable for the students, which determines the effectiveness of the case study. Online collaboration may also face challenges due to technical difficulties and digital literacy, and scheduling and coordinating group activities may pose logistical challenges. Some students may find it difficult to transition from lecture-based learning to PBL.

Online teaching and learning can benefit nursing study by allowing flexibility. It enables students to access class materials independently and from different locations, allows facilitators to share knowledge beyond geographical boundaries, exposes students to diverse perspectives, and facilitates interactive and collaborative activities. Online learning provides a safe and controlled environment for students to apply theoretical knowledge and analyze and synthesize material based on real-life situations. It also provides multimedia content, discussion forums, and interactive activities that can promote active learning.

However, the limitation of online learning is the lack of hands-on clinical experience crucial to nursing education. Hands-on experience includes having human face-to-face interactions with coworkers and patients, gaining experience from using physical equipment, and participating in real-world practice discussions instead of relying on internet searches.

By working collaboratively, students preparing for and presenting grand rounds and simulations would benefit the most from online teaching and learning. Preparing for grand rounds allows students to collaborate to research, present, and problem-solve with critical thinking, which fosters communication skills and teamwork. However, the downside of online projects is that it can be difficult to coordinate and communicate virtually when some students are in a different geographical location with a different time zone, and language can also be a barrier.

In conclusion, integrating constructivist principles into online nursing education can enhance the learning experience by promoting active engagement, critical thinking, and relevance to real-world practice. However, facilitators and educators need to be mindful of potential challenges such as technological limitations, the need for hands-on clinical experiences, and the importance of maintaining social interaction in the virtual learning environment. Effective implementation requires a thoughtful blend of pedagogical strategies, technology integration, and ongoing support for educators and students.


Bada, S. O., & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism learning theory: A paradigm for teaching and learning. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 5(6), 66-70.

Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). https://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html

Constructivism. Office of Curriculum, Assessment and Teaching Transformation – University at Buffalo. Retrieved from https://www.buffalo.edu/catt/develop/theory/constructivism.html

Schema theory. ETSU Center for Teaching Excellence. (2022, July 12). https://www.etsu.edu/teaching/resources/more_resources/schema.php

learning activity 2 – Cognitivism in the Online Environment

Nursing education is a unique field requiring a great amount of theoretical learning and an unparalleled amount of practical hands-on experience. Due to this uniqueness of knowledge, educators must apply different learning styles to ensure students’ best learning experience. Applying various teaching and learning theories is crucial for effective knowledge transfer and skill acquisition. One such theory gaining prominence is Cognitivism, which focuses on the mental processes involved in learning, such as perception, memory, and problem-solving.

Cognitivism in nursing education emphasizes the importance of active mental engagement, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. In online nursing education, this theory is implemented through interactive modules, case studies, and simulations that challenge students to apply their theoretical knowledge to real-world scenarios. Virtual patient encounters, online clinical simulations, and collaborative problem-solving activities are all examples of how Cognitivism is integrated into the online learning environment for nursing students.

Online nursing programs based on Cognitivism principles encourage active engagement, which leads to a deeper understanding of concepts and improved critical thinking skills. The online platform also enables personalized learning experiences, allowing students to learn at their own pace and focus on areas where they may need extra support. In addition, online assessments and simulations provide immediate feedback, which helps students to improve continuously and reinforces correct practices. Virtual simulations and case studies provide a safe environment for students to practice clinical skills and decision-making, bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Online nursing education faces several challenges that may hinder students’ skill development, including limited hands-on experiences and difficulties in assessing complex cognitive skills such as critical thinking and clinical judgment. With physical safeguards in place, students might react differently in real-life situations. Additionally, some students may struggle with technological barriers or have varying levels of technological proficiency, leading to disparities in learning experiences. The startup cost for engaging in online learning can be expensive. Furthermore, online learning can be isolating for students, lacking the interpersonal connections and collaborative experiences often vital in nursing education.

The utilization of virtual patient scenarios as a learning tool for nursing students, which necessitates the application of critical thinking and knowledge-based clinical decision-making, aligns well with the principles of Cognitivism. Online platforms that facilitate collaborative problem-solving through case studies are an effective method for active engagement, where theoretical knowledge is applied to practical situations. The application of Cognitivism can be efficiently achieved by the utilization of online modules that break down intricate nursing concepts, thereby encouraging active processing and comprehension.

While Cognitivism offers valuable insights into how nursing education can be enhanced, it is essential to carefully consider the pros and cons, especially in the context of online teaching. Balancing the benefits of active engagement and personalized learning with the challenges of limited hands-on experiences and potential isolation is crucial for creating effective online nursing education programs. Integrating the principles of Cognitivism into specific online learning situations can contribute to a well-rounded and engaging nursing education experience.

Online Instructor Roles Skills and Competencies

online instructor infographic


Aguayo, C., Eames, C., and Cochrane, T. (2020). A Framework for Mixed Reality Free-Choice, Self-Determined Learning. Research in Learning Technology. 28(2020), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v28.2347
Condon, C. (2019). What is the difference between training and facilitation? Facilitated Training a world of resources. Retrieved from https://www.facilitatedtraining.com/what-is-the-difference-between-training-and-facilitation-facilitatedtraining-com/
Course Management for the Online Classroom. (2016, March 14). Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/course-management-for-the-online-classroom.html.
Gicco, G. (2014). Learning-Style Assessment in Online Courses: A Prerequisite for Academic Success. Journal on Educational Technology, 11, 1-5.
Main, P (2022, February 09). Growth Mindset: A teacher’s guide. Retrieved from https://www.structural-learning.com/post/growth-mindset-a-teachers-guide
Martin, F., Budhrani, K., Kumar, S., and Ritzhaupt, A. (2019). Award-winning faculty online teaching practices: Roles and competencies. Online learning, 23(1), 184-205. https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v23il.1329
Ni Shé, C., Farrell, O., Brunton, J., Costello, E., Donlon, E., Trevaskis, S., and Eccles, S. (2019). Teaching online is different: Critical perspectives from the literature. Dublin City University.
Sailer, M., Stadler, M., Schultz-Pernice, F., Franke, U., Schoffmann, C., Paniotova, V., Husagic, L., and Fischer, F. (2021). Technology-related teaching skills and attitudes: Validation of a scenario-based self-assessment instrument for teachers. Computers in Human Behavior. 115(2021), 106625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106625

When you think about yourself as an online teacher, what metaphor illuminates your perspective?

Teaching and farming are two professions that share many similarities. Both involve cultivating valuable resources, whether the land or young minds. However, the online teaching world is a relatively uncharted territory, and educators must navigate a vast digital landscape, exploring various digital tools and platforms to enhance the educational process. Just as a farmer must learn to cultivate an unknown land, an online teacher must adapt to multiple digital tools and methods to create engaging virtual environments for their students.

Both professions require a deep commitment to fostering growth and development. The satisfaction of witnessing the growth and flourishing of seedlings parallels the satisfaction an online teacher feels when a student grasps and applies new knowledge. However, both professions also require addressing challenges and obstacles that may hinder progress. Just as a farmer must remove weeds and barriers to ensure a healthy crop, an online teacher must address challenges and obstacles that may hinder students’ learning experiences.

Both professions also share an interest in passing on knowledge to others. Successful farmers often share insights and techniques, while online teachers strive to impart their expertise to enable others to navigate the digital learning landscape. However, an online instructor’s role differs significantly from a face-to-face instructor’s. Online instructors must possess strong digital literacy, utilize multimedia resources effectively, and create engaging virtual environments. Communication in an online setting relies heavily on written forms, necessitating clear and concise expression.

In contrast to face-to-face interaction, online teaching demands intentional and structured communication to foster meaningful connections. Additionally, online instructors must be adaptable and adept at troubleshooting technological issues, as the virtual classroom environment can be more unpredictable. Key competencies for online teachers include effective communication skills, technical proficiency, adaptability, and a deep understanding of online pedagogy. They must foster a sense of community in the virtual space, promoting collaborative learning and student engagement.

Successful online teaching requires a dynamic blend of pedagogical expertise, technological fluency, and a commitment to fostering a supportive and engaging virtual learning environment. Ultimately, the success of both farming and teaching hinges on the practitioner’s dedication and willingness to endeavor to flourish, whether cultivating a piece of land or nurturing the minds of eager learners.

The role of the Online Instructor

The role of an instructor in an online setting is distinct from that in a physical one. In online classes, there might not be a fixed schedule, and students may have to watch pre-recorded lectures and refer to additional resources independently. Class participation could be limited in such cases. In contrast, an in-person class allows instructors to interact more and observe students’ reactions, which could influence the teaching style and format.

I agree with Bawane and Spector (2009) that the pedagogical role is the most important one. As they suggest, the pedagogical role involves designing instructional strategies, creating suitable learning materials, implementing them, encouraging student participation, and maintaining motivation. This role requires active listening from students so that instructors can improve their teaching methods based on their feedback. It also demands staying up-to-date with relevant resources to modify teaching styles and meet students’ learning needs. This role is even more challenging in the online environment, as instructors must keep up with the constantly changing online materials and keep students motivated. (Bawane and Spector, 2009)



Bawane, J., & Spector, J. M. (2009). Prioritization of online instructor roles: Implications for competency‐based teacher education programs. Distance Education , 30 (3), 383-397.

Online Course Audit

The online course I enrolled in is called “Managing Happiness” and is offered by HarvardX. It aims to help us manage and understand happiness. We often ask each other how we’re doing or how our day was, but what we’re really after is to know whether we’re happy or satisfied with what we did. Being happy means being in control of our own lives, and this course teaches us how to achieve that. By engaging in daily journaling, we’ll learn to understand and manage our happiness, and take charge of our lives.