Wk7 LA 2

Both Salmon’s (2006) Five Stage Model of e-moderating and the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework, as outlined by Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, and Garrison (2013) are frameworks that assist educators in creating and facilitating online learning environments. Although they share common principles, such as creating an environment that is conducive to learning, encouraging discussion, and assessing the learning process, they also have distinct differences.

Salmon’s Five Stage Model is based on a linear and sequential progression of online learning. It starts with gaining access and motivation, then socializing, exchanging information, constructing knowledge, and finally, developing. It emphasizes the significance of building a supportive online community, active participation, and promoting critical thinking and collaboration. (Salmon, 2006)

The COI framework, on the other hand, focuses on creating and maintaining a community of inquiry where learners engage in meaningful dialogue, critical reflection, and collaborative problem-solving. It provides a set of principles and guidelines for fostering a supportive and intellectually stimulating online environment rather than being prescriptive or linear. (Garrison, 2007; Vaughan et al., 2013)

The two frameworks differ in their approach to facilitation. Salmon’s model highlights the role of the e-moderator in guiding learners through the stages of online learning, while the COI framework emphasizes shared responsibility and collaboration among participants. Additionally, the COI framework focuses more on cognitive, social, and teaching presence, while Salmon’s model concentrates more on the practical aspects of facilitating online discussions.

In conclusion, both the Five Stage Model of e-moderating and the COI framework provide valuable guidance for educators in facilitating online learning environments. While they share some common principles, such as creating a supportive and intellectually stimulating online community, they also have distinct differences in their approach to facilitation and the overall structure of the learning process. Educators can utilize elements from both frameworks to create effective and engaging online learning experiences for their students.

References

Garrison, D. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11 (1), 61-72. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ842688.pdf

Vaughan, N. D., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Garrison, R.D. (2013). Facilitation. In Teaching in blended learning environments: Creating and sustaining communities of inquiry (pp.45-62). Athabasca, AB: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/books/120229/ebook/03_Vaughan_et_al_2013-Teaching_in_Blended_Learning_Environments.pdf CC BY-NC-ND 2.5 CA

Salmon, G. (2006). 80:20 for e-moderators. In: The challenge of ecompetence in academic staff development . CELT, NUI Galway, Galway, Republic of Ireland, pp. 145-154. Retrieved from https://eprints.usq.edu.au/18862/2/Salmon_Ch16_2006_PV.pdf

WK6 LA3 Draft Online Design Plan

Course Title: Enhancing Emergency Care for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

 

Course Overview

Efforts to recognize and manage medical emergencies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) require timely and accurate diagnosis, as well as tailored communication and support from healthcare professionals. To ensure effective emergency care for individuals with ASD, healthcare professionals must gain a thorough understanding of the communication and sensory differences associated with ASD and adapt their approach to provide equitable and inclusive services. By doing so, misunderstandings and behavioral crises can be prevented, and patient satisfaction and outcomes can be improved. It is essential for healthcare professionals to work together to promote awareness of ASD and its implications for emergency care to prioritize effective communication, empathy, and responsiveness to the unique needs of each individual.

 

This course is designed to equip healthcare professionals in emergency departments with the essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to provide effective and compassionate care to individuals with ASD during emergency visits. It integrates theoretical foundations, practical exercises, and reflective activities to deepen participants’ understanding of ASD and its implications for emergency care and to enhance their communication and problem-solving skills in serving this marginalized population.

 

Course Duration

  • Two months. Six weekly one-hour synchronized online classes on Tuesday evening (time to be arranged and agreed between students and faculty) and two four-hour in-person classes (Tuesday after week 3 and week 7, to be arranged between students and faculty). Total of 8 classes (6 synchronized online classes and two in-person classes). One-hour pre-class reading before participating in online and in-person classes.

 

Course Instructor

Alice is a Master of Nursing student and a mother of two autistic children. She has over 20 years of experience in the emergency department as a critical care nurse, a palliative nurse, a vascular access nurse, and a former interventional radiology nurse. Alice’s family has personally experienced how being neurodivergent can significantly impact the care and support provided to individuals who have it. Unfortunately, her family has faced ableism and exclusion not only in healthcare settings but also within the wider community. There is a significant gap in knowledge and understanding of what neurodivergence is, which leads to stereotyping and prejudice against the neurodivergent population. However, this prejudice is not the view of the population.

 

With increased community awareness, knowledge, and involvement in neurodivergence, society can create a more inclusive and accessible community for the neurodivergent population. Alice has completed the level one certificate of the ASD caregiver program from Kinark Autism Services and has attended multiple caregiver education workshops based on evidence-based practices from services such as Kinark, Kerry’s Place, 1to1 Rehab, etc. Furthermore, her major paper for her Master of Nursing program focuses on the lived experience of the caregiver (professional healthcare provider) in emergency department settings while caring for the neurodivergent population.

 

She works as a critical care nurse in an emergency department that services different age groups, including the neurodivergent population. Creating this course allows healthcare professionals to provide high-quality care to the neurodivergent population during emergency visits and identify any knowledge gaps that we can improve within the medical system in Canada.

 

Course Target Audience 

  • Primary Healthcare Providers ([PHP], physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and any personnel working in the emergency department with recent interaction with the autistic population within the past year)

 

Course Capacity

  • 6-10

 

Course Location

  • 6 One-hour weekly synchronized online classes and two 4-hour in-person classes at Irene Strickland Auditorium (a.k.a. Old Cafeteria).

 

Course Language

  • English
  • Medical terminology

 

Course Prerequisite

  • Regulated healthcare providers with a minimum of 1 year experience working within the emergency department.
  • Foundational knowledge on head-to-toe assessment.
  • Willingness to learn with an open mind.
  • Computer literate

 

Course Delivery:

  • This course employs a blended approach, combining synchronous online sessions with in-person workshops and activities. Students will engage in interactive discussions, case studies, role-plays, and reflective exercises to facilitate learning and skill development. Online modules will be supplemented with real-world scenarios and practical demonstrations during in-person sessions, allowing participants to effectively apply theoretical knowledge to practical situations.

 

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to:

 

  1. Explore the diverse sensory needs and communication challenges individuals with ASD may present during emergency visits.
  2. Recognize the potential challenges individuals with ASD may face during emergency visits.
  3. Identify strategies for anticipating, recognizing, and accommodating the sensory needs of individuals with ASD in emergency settings.
  4. Develop effective communication strategies tailored to the needs of individuals with ASD and their families during emergency visits.
  5. Support medical and nursing care with critical thinking and problem-solving skills to navigate through challenging situations.
  6. Reflect on personal attitudes and biases towards individuals with ASD and adopt a compassionate and inclusive approach in emergency care delivery.

 

Learning Outcomes

  1. Gain a comprehensive understanding of ASD, including defining its characteristics, diagnosis, and prevalence. Understand the diverse needs and perspectives of individuals on the autism spectrum.
  2. Support potential challenges faced by individuals with ASD in emergency care settings.
  3. Develop and demonstrate practical and critical thinking skills to problem-solve based on individual sensory needs.
  4. Recognize and make connections between ASD-related information and emergency care practices.
  5. Combine course material with real-life emergencies, integrating knowledge into daily professional experiences.
  6. Reflect on self-awareness regarding personal biases and assumptions when interacting with individuals with ASD. Foster empathy towards individuals with ASD in emergency care settings.
  7. Commit to providing person-centered care to enhance the overall well-being of individuals with ASD during emergency visits.
  8. Share knowledge gained within the course through effective communication with peers and colleagues.

 

Course Structure

Online components of Enhancing Emergency Care for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will cover six different topics each week, which are released at once when the course is launched.

 

  • Week 1: Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Online)
    • Introduction to ASD: Characteristics and Spectrum
    • Neurodiversity and Individual Differences
    • Impact of ASD on Emergency Care

 

  • Week 2: Anticipating Challenges and Planning Ahead (Online)
    • Identifying Common Triggers and Stressors
    • Preparing the Environment for ASD Patients
    • Collaborative Care Planning with Patients and Families

 

  • Week 3: Addressing Sensory Needs (Online)
    • Sensory Processing in ASD
    • Creating Sensory-Friendly Environments in Emergency Settings
    • Practical Strategies for Sensory Regulation

 

  • Week 4: PHP Assemble and Creating Circle (In-person)
    • Revisit topics covered in week 1-3
    • Hands-on practice
    • Discussion forum

 

  • Week 5: Effective Communication Techniques (Online)
    • Communication Challenges in ASD
    • Strategies for Clear and Concise Communication
    • Building Rapport and Trust with ASD Patients and Families

 

  • Week 6: Problem-Solving in Emergency Situations (Online)
    • Case Studies and Simulations
    • Decision-Making under Pressure
    • Collaborative Problem-Solving Techniques

 

  • Week 7: Reflective Practice and Personal Growth (Online)
    • Self-awareness and Attitude Reflection
    • Empathy and Compassionate Care
    • Continuous Improvement in Emergency Care for ASD Patients

 

  • Week 8: PHP Assemble and Closing Circle (In-person)
    • Revisit topics from the previous eight weeks
    • Hands-on practice
    • Discussion forum

 

Teaching and Learning Activities

  • Interactive questions and discussions during online meetings to encourage engagement and reflection.
  • Pre- and post-learning surveys to gauge understanding and track progress.
  • Hands-on practice using low-tech and high-tech autism communication strategies and visual supports such as a picture exchange communication system (communication board, visual schedule, and Augmentative and Alternative Communication [AAC] tools).
  • Class materials, including videos and readings on the sensory needs of the ASD population (developed and produced by credible sources along with best-practice guidelines from CAM-H, H-CARDD, Hospital for Sick Children, etc).
  • Simulated emergency scenarios, role-playing exercises, and case studies.
  • One-minute essays after each class to encourage reflection.
  • Weekly journaling and online discussions for active learning and peer feedback.
  • Monthly in-person meetings for physical practice of conversations and feedback.
  • Student-led discussions to encourage participation and feedback.

 

Situational Factors

  • 6-10 students, targeted for healthcare professionals working in emergency departments.
  • The class will be conducted using professional language, including medical terminologies.
  • Hybrid format with synchronized online 1-hour weekly classes (Tuesday evenings, to be agreed upon between students and faculty) and two 4-hour in-person classes (Tuesday after Week 3 and Week 7) in a physical classroom (Irene Strickland Auditorium).
  • Online materials provided for review before weekly online meetings. (Materials will be posted on the course website)
  • Participants are encouraged to lead discussions to foster feedback and engagement.
  • Lower division course, but participants must be regulated medical professionals with experience in emergency care and exposure to caring for individuals with ASD.
  • Course focuses on enhancing communication and assessment skills for emergency care of individuals with ASD.

 

Feedback & Assessment

  • Formative assessments include small group activities, reflection questions (one-minute essays), and blog posts (journaling to keep track of progress and as part of personal portfolios).
  • Ongoing feedback is provided to facilitate learning enhancement.
  • Summative assessments include monthly in-person meetings, hands-on practice sessions using a picture exchange communication system, low-tech and high-tech communication strategies, and iLearn multiple choice questions pre- and post-class to evaluate the understanding of materials presented.
  • Direct observation and evaluation of communication techniques in scenarios.
  • Feedback is frequent, immediate, discriminating, and supportive to facilitate ongoing improvement.

 

Grading

This course has the following types of assignments:

Type Description
Concept Checks, Reflections/Journals, and Pre/Post-Class Questionnaire Short-form free response, one-minute essays, multiple choice questions, and true/false questions.
Discussion Short-form free responses for building a personal portfolio
Hands-on practice A series of short activities during each week to get familiar with different tools and strategies for communication.

 

Grading Rubric

Enhancing Emergency Care for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) will be graded according to the following rubric:

Interactive Questions and Discussions during Online Meetings

Performance Levels Description Points
Excellent (4) Consistently engages in discussions, asks insightful questions, actively listens to peers, and contributes meaningfully to the conversation. Demonstrates reflection and critical thinking skills. 4
Proficient (3) Regularly participates in discussions, asks relevant questions, and engages with peers. Demonstrates some reflection and critical thinking skills. 3
Developing (2) Participates inconsistently in discussions, asks occasional questions, and demonstrates limited engagement with peers. Reflection and critical thinking skills are emerging. 2
Below Expectations (1) Rarely participates in discussions, rarely asks questions, and shows minimal engagement with peers. Lacks reflection and critical thinking skills. 1

 

Pre- and Post-Learning Surveys

Performance Levels Description Points
Excellent (4) Completes surveys thoughtfully, accurately, and consistently. Demonstrates a deep understanding of the material and shows significant progress over time. 4
Proficient (3) Completes surveys adequately, with some thoughtful responses. Demonstrates a satisfactory understanding of the material and shows some progress over time. 3
Developing (2) Completes surveys inconsistently or with minimal effort. Demonstrates limited understanding of the material and shows little progress over time. 2
Below Expectations (1) Fails to complete surveys or provides irrelevant responses. Demonstrates a lack of understanding of the material and shows no progress over time. 1

 

Hands-On Practice with Communication Strategies

Performance Levels Description Points
Excellent (4) Demonstrates proficiency in using both low-tech and high-tech autism communication strategies with accuracy and creativity. Shows evidence of understanding individual needs and adapting strategies accordingly. 4
Proficient (3) Demonstrates competence in using communication strategies with occasional errors. Shows understanding of individual needs but may need guidance in adapting strategies. 3
Developing (2) Shows effort in using communication strategies but struggles with accuracy or creativity. Requires significant guidance in understanding individual needs and adapting strategies. 2
Below Expectations (1) Demonstrates limited effort in using communication strategies, with frequent errors and lack of understanding of individual needs. Requires constant guidance in adapting strategies.

 

Passing the course

The passing grade for this course is 80%

 

Conclusion

This course aims not only to equip healthcare professionals with the necessary competencies to provide high-quality care to individuals with ASD in emergency settings but also to foster a culture of empathy, understanding, and inclusivity within emergency departments. Through a combination of theoretical learning, practical exercises, and reflective activities, participants will emerge as confident and compassionate caregivers, capable of meeting the unique needs of ASD patients and their families with professionalism and dignity.

 

 

Week 1 Agenda:

Housekeeping (5 minutes)

  • Welcome students.
  • Discuss pre-class survey to gauge students’ understanding and expectations regarding ASD.

 

Session 1: Introduction to ASD (15 minutes)

  • Brief introduction to the course objectives and structure.
  • Definition of ASD and explanation of the spectrum.
  • Discussion on the characteristics of ASD and examples of behaviors commonly associated with it.
  • Interactive Q&A session to clarify doubts and share personal experiences related to ASD.

 

Session 2: Neurodiversity and Individual Differences (10 minutes)

  • Explanation of neurodiversity and its importance in understanding ASD.
  • Discuss individual differences among individuals with ASD, emphasizing strengths and challenges.
  • Interactive activity where participants share their perspectives on neurodiversity and individual differences.

 

Session 3: Impact of ASD on Emergency Care (10 minutes)

  • How ASD can impact emergency care situations.
  • Discussion on strategies for providing effective emergency care to individuals with ASD.
  • Interactive scenario-based exercise where participants discuss and role-play emergency care situations involving individuals with ASD.

 

Session 4: Introduction to Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) (10 minutes)

  • Overview of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) as a communication tool for individuals with ASD.
  • Demonstration of PECS and its components.
  • Interactive activity where participants practice creating and using PECS cards.

 

Session 5: Role-Playing Exercise (10 minutes)

  • Explanation of the importance of empathy and understanding in interactions with individuals with ASD.
  • Role-playing exercise where students perform different roles to simulate interactions with individuals with ASD in various scenarios.
  • Debrief to discuss insights and lessons learned from the role-playing exercise.

 

Session 6: Weekly Journaling (10 minutes)

  • Introduction to the weekly journaling activity.
  • Explanation of the purpose of journaling and its benefits for reflection and learning.
  • Assignment of journaling prompts related to the topics covered in the session.
  • Encourage students to reflect in their journals on their learning, insights, and personal experiences related to ASD.

 

Closing Circle (5 minutes)

  • Summary of key takeaways from the session.
  • Reminders about upcoming sessions and assignments.
  • Thank participants for their active participation and engagement.
  • Encourage participants to continue exploring and understanding ASD beyond the course.

 

Post-Class Activities

  • Provide resources for further reading and learning about ASD.
  • Encourage participants to journal throughout the week and prepare for the next session.
  • Collect feedback on the session to tailor future sessions accordingly.

 

Assessment:

  • Formative Assessment: Participation in discussions and completion of activities.
  • Summative Assessment: Reflection on journal entries, performance in hands-on exercises, and completion of online multiple-choice questions on iLearn and short answer questions to show understanding of best practice.

 

Feedback Mechanisms:

  • Immediate feedback during activities and discussions.
  • Ongoing feedback through journal entries and online discussions.
  • Monthly in-person meetings for personalized feedback and practice sessions.

 

Materials Required:

  • Stable wifi
  • Computer
  • Lecture slides
  • Case studies
  • Videos on ASD and sensory needs
  • Picture exchange communication system, low-tech, high-tech communication strategy, AAC tools for hands-on practice
  • Journaling prompts
  • Online discussion platform (Zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Team, Whiteboard, Jamboard, Kahoot, iLearn, etc.)

 

Preparation for Students:

  • Review pre-assigned readings/videos.
  • Prepare to engage in discussions and activities.
  • Complete the pre-class survey.

 

Syllabus for Formative and Summative Assessment:

 

Formative Assessment:

  1. Weekly quizzes assessing understanding of theoretical concepts (20%)
  2. Participation in online discussion forums reflecting on practical exercises and case studies (20%)
  3. Completion of reflective journals after each module (10%)

 

Summative Assessment:

  1. Written assignment: Development of a personalized communication plan for an ASD patient during an emergency visit (20%)
  2. Simulation-based assessment: Role-play scenarios in a simulated emergency setting (30%)

 

Total: 100%

 

References

 

Bloom’s taxonomy. Centre for Teaching Excellence. (2023, November 14). Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/catalogs/tip-sheets/blooms-taxonomy#:~:text=An%20introduction%20to%20Bloom’s%20Taxonomy,to%20different%20levels%20of%20learning.

Dee Fink, L. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning. Retrieved from http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf

Educational Origami. (n.d.). Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy . Retrieved from https://teachonline.asu.edu/2016/05/integrating-technology-blooms-taxonomy/

Autism Association of South Australia. (2020, February 13). Autism communication strategies. The Spectrum. Retrieved from https://thespectrum.org.au/autism-strategy/autism-strategy-communication/

Sewell, J., Frith, K. H., & Colvin, M. M. (2010). Online assessment strategies: A primer. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 297-305. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no1/sewell_0310.pdf

University of Central Florida (n.d.). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Retrieved from “http://www.fctl.ucf.edu/teachingandlearningresources/coursedesign/bloomstaxonomy”

UNSW. (n.d.). Selecting Technologies. Retrieved from https://teaching.unsw.edu.au/selecting-technologies

WK5 LA3 Discussion

Course Title: Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder in Emergency Care

Course Context:

This specialized online course is designed with healthcare professionals working in emergency departments in mind, with the aim of enhancing their knowledge and skills when it comes to caring for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients and families. The course provides comprehensive coverage of various topics, including strategies for anticipating challenges, addressing sensory needs, and utilizing effective communication techniques during emergency visits. The course follows Bloom’s Taxonomy, a methodical approach to learning, to ensure a seamless and effective learning experience.

Foundational Knowledge Goals:

  • Acquire a comprehensive understanding of ASD, including defining its characteristics, diagnosis, and prevalence.
  • Able to identify key challenges faced by individuals with ASD in emergency care settings.

Application Goals:

  • Analyze, explain, and evaluate potential challenges in emergency care for individuals with ASD.
  • Develop and illustrate practical thinking skills to problem-solve, describe, and discuss conventional care strategies based on individual sensory needs.
  • Demonstrate critical thinking in applying communication techniques to effectively interact with individuals on the autism spectrum during emergency visits.

Integration Goals:

  • Recognize and make connections between ASD-related information and emergency care practices.
  • Apply course material to real-life emergency care scenarios, integrating knowledge into daily professional experiences.

Human Dimensions Goals:

  • Develop self-awareness regarding personal biases and assumptions when interacting with individuals with ASD.
  • Understand the diverse needs and perspectives of individuals on the autism spectrum.

Caring Goals:

  • Foster empathy towards individuals with ASD in emergency care settings.
  • Develop a commitment to providing person-centered care to enhance the overall well-being of individuals with ASD during emergency visits.

Learning-How-to-Learn Goals:

  • Share knowledge gained within the course through effective communication with peers and colleagues.
  • Demonstrate the ability to be a proactive and informed healthcare provider when caring for individuals with ASD.

SMART Criteria:

Specific: The course focuses on healthcare professionals in emergency departments.

Measurable: Evaluation through online multiple-choice assessments, discussions, and monthly in-person meetings.

Attainable: Achievable by successfully identifying sensory needs and utilizing communication techniques via online assessments.

Relevant: Concentrates on emergency care settings and addresses specific challenges in this context.

Time Frame: 3 months, with monthly in-person meetings and weekly online discussions.

Measurable Learning Outcomes:

  • By the end of the course, participants will be able to identify at least three sensory needs common in individuals with ASD and propose effective strategies to address them in emergency care settings, as demonstrated by an 80% or higher success rate in online multiple-choice assessments.
  • Participants will be able to apply at least two distinct communication techniques and strategies tailored to the needs of individuals with ASD during emergency visits, evidenced by successful participation in online discussions and practical application scenarios during monthly in-person meetings.

Developing learning outcomes for an online course that focuses on understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the context of emergency department care for healthcare professionals has been a comprehensive and thoughtful process. The process begins with Bloom’s taxonomy, which helps to define the goals of the course. The foundational knowledge aspect focuses on key information about ASD and emphasizes the importance of recognizing the challenges and sensory needs specific to the ASD population during emergency visits. The application goals require critical and practical thinking skills to analyze, evaluate, and problem-solve in real-life scenarios. The integration goals encourage students to connect course material with their own experiences in healthcare settings. Human dimensions goals emphasize self-awareness and understanding of others when interacting with individuals with ASD, while caring goals focus on fostering empathy and interest in providing effective care. Finally, learning-how-to-learn goals emphasize knowledge sharing and becoming a proficient healthcare provider when caring for individuals with ASD. The SMART criteria are then applied to ensure that the outcomes are specific and tailored to healthcare professionals in emergency departments. The outcomes should be measurable and achievable through online learning methods, relevant to emergency department needs, and time-bound with a structured 3-month timeline including monthly in-person meetings and weekly online discussions. Two measurable learning outcomes could be (1) healthcare professionals accurately identifying sensory needs in ASD individuals during emergency visits through online assessments and (2) demonstrating effective communication techniques in overcoming challenges faced by ASD individuals in the emergency department through online discussions and multiple-choice questions. Overall, integrating Bloom’s taxonomy and the SMART criteria facilitates a well-structured, goal-oriented, and effective online learning experience for healthcare professionals in emergency departments caring for the ASD population.

Wk5 LA 2 Situational Factors

  1. Specific Context of the Teaching/Learning Situation

How many students are in the class? Is the course lower division, upper division, or graduate level? How long and frequent are the class meetings? How will the course be delivered: live, online, or in a classroom or lab? What physical elements of the learning environment will affect the class?

There will be approximately 6-10 students in the class, a lower division course (but with the target audience of healthcare professionals working within the emergency department); the class will be in a hybrid format with online weekly meetings and once a month in a physical classroom. There will be online materials for students to review before meetings and journaling. As well as the physical practice of conversations. Students are encouraged to lead the class with discussion to encourage feedback.

  1. General Context of the Learning Situation

What learning expectations are placed on this course or curriculum by: the university, college and/or department? the profession? society?

The course aims to increase the understanding of healthcare professionals in the context of caring for neurodivergence populations within the community. Increase accessibility and provide an inclusive environment. The course expects to enhance communication between healthcare professionals and patients living with ASD and their families during their emergency visits to the hospital. As well as improving the quality of care delivered within the emergency department.

 

  1. Nature of the Subject

Is this subject primarily theoretical, practical, or a combination? Is the subject primarily convergent or divergent? Are there important changes or controversies occurring within the field?

The nature of the subject is primarily a combination. First, theories on different styles of communication and sensory needs are introduced, and then, through physical practice, learners are to explore different formats of communication to guide their potential communication challenges with the population’s needs. It is in a divergent style of learning. Guiding course participants to identify multiple possible solutions to caring for the neurodivergence population. It also simulates learners’ critical thinking to develop communication and assessment styles that can be tailored to the different sensory needs of the neurodivergence population. It is important to realize that there is more than one style of communication when interacting with the neurodivergence population.

  1. Characteristics of the Learners

What is the life situation of the learners (e.g., working, family, professional goals)? What prior knowledge, experiences, and initial feelings do students usually have about this subject? What are their learning goals, expectations, and preferred learning styles?

Although this is a lower-division course, all learners must be healthcare professionals working in the emergency department. With some exposures of caring for the neurodivergence population within the past year within the emergency department. Learners must have the basic foundation of head-to-toe assessment and critical thinking skills. The course only offers different communication styles and techniques to assist learners with their head-to-toe assessment and critical thinking during challenges while providing medical care for the neurodivergence population.

  1. Characteristics of the Teacher

What beliefs and values does the teacher have about teaching and learning? What is his/her attitude toward: the subject? students? What level of knowledge or familiarity does s/he have with this subject? What are his/her strengths in teaching?

As a mother of two children who have autism, I have personally experienced how neurodivergence can have a significant impact on the care and support provided to individuals who have it. Unfortunately, we have faced ableism and exclusion not only in healthcare settings but also within the wider community. There is a significant gap in knowledge and understanding of what neurodivergence is, which leads to stereotyping and prejudice against the neurodivergent population. However, this prejudice is not the view of the population. With increased community awareness, knowledge, and involvement in neurodivergence, we can create a more inclusive and accessible community for the neurodivergent population. I have completed the level one certificate of the ASD caregiver program from Kinark Autism Services and attended multiple caregiver education workshops based on evidence-based practices from services such as Kinark, Kerry’s Place, 1to1 Rehab, etc. Furthermore, my major paper for my Master of Nursing program focuses on the lived experience of the caregiver (professional healthcare provider) in emergency department settings while caring for the neurodivergence population. I am also a critical care nurse in an emergency department that services different age groups, including the neurodivergence population. Creating this course allows medication professionals to provide high-quality care to the neurodivergence population during emergency visits and identify any knowledge gaps that we can improve within the medical system in Canada.

Following the Worksheet

The worksheet is an indispensable tool that provides a clear, step-by-step methodology for creating a well-structured and effective syllabus and course content. Its systematic approach helps to organize the course material logically and coherently while providing a sound justification for each step. Furthermore, it provides a comprehensive overview of the crucial topics and their relevance in the course, thus ensuring a comprehensive and cohesive learning experience. Whether you’re designing a face-to-face or online course, this versatile tool is an excellent resource that can help you achieve your teaching objectives with ease.

Wk 4 LA 3 Instructional design Model Reflection

Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction are two instructional design frameworks used while designing the course “Managing Happiness” with the specified learning objectives. The first instructional design that is obvious within the course is Bloom’s Taxonomy.  Bloom’s Taxonomy is a hierarchical model that classifies learning objectives into different cognitive levels. The ascending order of complexity are Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating.

At the start of each module, the course instructor will ask students to recall an event that triggers happiness involving prior experience or knowledge from long-term memory. Then, students will be introduced to various definitions of happiness and understand its function in everyday life. To prompt analysis of different perspectives on happiness, design activities that include readings, discussions, and reflections on cultural and philosophical viewpoints. The instructor will then apply the science of the mind, body, and community to manage emotions and behaviors for greater happiness. Create practical exercises and simulations where learners can apply psychological and community-building principles to manage their emotions and behaviors effectively. Students will also learn how genetic, social, and economic factors influence their happiness. Videos, case studies, and scenarios will be presented to encourage learners to analyze the impact of these factors on individual happiness. Critical thinking and online surveys will be used to encourage discussions and personal reflections. Learners will be able to recognize the differences between short-term and long-term happiness regarding success and achievement. Facilitate discussions or debates where learners can evaluate the impact of success and achievement on short-term and long-term happiness. At the end of each module, students will create a personalized happiness portfolio incorporating their goals and desires. Project-based assessments and creative assignments will be used to reflect their understanding of the content. Finally, students will develop and present their happiness strategies for different life stages. This could involve a written reflection, a presentation, or a multimedia project.

The second instructional design is Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. It’s a systematic approach to instructional design that focuses on the essential elements that facilitate learning. At the beginning of each module, the facilitator presents an attention-grabbing introduction to spark interest in the topic of happiness. This could be a thought-provoking quote, a relevant anecdote, or a multimedia presentation. Next, the learning objectives are clearly stated at the beginning of each module to provide a roadmap for the learners. In each module, students are connected to new information about happiness, relating it to their existing knowledge or experiences, reinforcing the relevance of the content. The facilitator then delivers content related to diverse definitions of happiness, genetic, social, and economic influences, using various instructional methods such as lectures, discussions, and multimedia. Frequent support is provided to learners in understanding and applying the science of the mind, body, and community by offering guidance, resources, and examples. Within each module, there are multiple surveys and reflections that students are required to apply their knowledge in practical scenarios, fostering hands-on experience in managing emotions and behaviors for greater happiness. Instructors and facilitators then provide constructive feedback on learners’ performance, aiding in their understanding and improvement. Surveys and reflections also act as assessments to evaluate learners’ understanding and application of concepts related to happiness, ensuring the achievement of learning objectives. Finally, each module concludes with a summary and connections to real-life situations by developing a happiness portfolio, emphasizing the practical application of the knowledge gained where students can utilize such portfolios as strategies in the real world.

Within the course of “Managing Happiness,” it is beneficial to integrate Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. This approach provides a comprehensive and structured framework that ensures a well-rounded and engaging learning experience for the students. By utilizing Bloom’s Taxonomy, instructors can focus on developing higher-order thinking skills in their students, while Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction provides a step-by-step guide to designing effective instructional materials. By combining these two theories, instructors can create a course that not only meets the learning objectives but also fosters critical thinking and long-term retention of the material.

References

Arshavskiy, M. (2021, May 12). Leveraging Gagné’s nine events of instruction. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/leveraging-gagnes-nine-events-of-instruction

Bloom’s taxonomy. Centre for Teaching Excellence. (2023, November 14). Retrieved from https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/catalogs/tip-sheets/blooms-taxonomy#:~:text=Bloom’s%20Taxonomy%20comprises%20three%20learning,of%20the%20Taxonomy%20are%20hierarchical.

Dee Fink, L. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning . Retrieved from http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf

Gagné, R. M. (1965). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction (1st ed.). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy: An Overview. Theory Into Practice. 41(4), 212-218. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4104_2

Siemens, G. (2002). Instructional design in elearning . Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/InstructionalDesign.htm

Wk3 LA 6 Online Teaching and Learning Context

The educational context I want to design for an online teaching and learning experience is appropriate interaction with the autistic population during an emergency visit. In designing an online teaching and learning experience focused on interacting with people living with autism in the emergency department, I will integrate constructivism and connectivism to foster a comprehensive and participant-driven understanding. The course will commence with a compelling introductory video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AemMt3lG4iM) highlighting the necessity of understanding this marginalized population. Participants will be encouraged to reflect on their recent encounters with autistic patients, eliciting personal feelings and insights. The constructivist approach will prompt learners to build new knowledge based on their unique understandings. Drawing from the H-CARDD Best Practice Series, including videos like https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvFLyOY3Fnc and the toolkit “Improving Emergency Care for Adults with Developmental Disabilities,” the course will incorporate content from the Canadian Academy of Health Science, Autism Speaks, The Queensland Centre for Intellectual and Developmental Disability, and other reputable sources. Emphasis will be placed on various technological aides, sensory-sensitive needs, and communication techniques within acute care settings. The overarching goal is to heighten healthcare providers’ awareness of the unique needs of the autistic population and establish a secure environment for both healthcare providers and patients during emergency visits. The experience will feature interactive questions, pre- and post-learning surveys, and hands-on practice using online ACC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication) tools to gauge participants’ understanding and facilitate skill development.

References

Clinicians and service providers. CAMH. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.camh.ca/en/professionals/professionals–projects/hcardd/health-care-resources/clinicians-and-service-providers

Connectivism learning theory. Western Governors University. (2022, October 25). Retrieved from https://www.wgu.edu/blog/connectivism-learning-theory2105.html

Connectivism (Siemens, Downes). Learning Theories. (2017, February 4). Retrieved from https://learning-theories.com/connectivism-siemens-downes.html

Kovanovic, v., Joksimovic, S., Gasevic, D., Siemens, G., and Hatala, M. (2015). What public media reveals about MOOCs: A systematic analysis of news reports. British Journal of Educational Technology. 46(33), 510-527. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12277

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3-10.

YouTube. (2017, July 17). CAMH study on autism and emergency departments. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AemMt3lG4iM

Week 3 Learning Activity 5 – Learning Theories Analysis

Constructivism is a learning theory that emphasizes the active role of the learner in constructing their understanding and knowledge. In the course “Managing Happiness,” the facilitator uses the constructivist approach to involve learners in reflecting on their experiences, sharing personal insights, and collaboratively exploring strategies for cultivating happiness. The course incorporates different activities that stimulate voluntary muscle movements involved in smiling. For instance, imagine holding a pencil or pen in your mouth for 15 seconds. The muscle groups involved in this activity are the same ones involved in smiling, and by simulating a smile, you can change your mood and feel happier. The course content encourages self-directed learning and personal meaning-making around the concept of happiness.

Connectivism is a learning theory focusing on the idea that knowledge and learning are distributed across people and technology networks. In “Managing Happiness,” the facilitator uses the connectivist approach to leverage social networks, online resources, and collaborative tools to share diverse perspectives on happiness. The course content includes watching YouTube videos and answering multiple-choice questions related to the content. Additionally, regular online surveys are conducted to gather students’ thoughts on the meaning of happiness and the benefits of being grateful. All the surveys and answers help students build their unique happiness portfolio. The course encourages participants to connect with others, share success stories, and learn from various experiences to enhance their understanding of happiness through reflections on others’ stories.

connectivism

It’s inspiring to see how Integrating Connectivism into teaching and learning practices has become a transformative force, aligning seamlessly with technological advancements that have become an integral part of our lives. Nursing education that embraces Connectivism recognizes the profound impact of technology on the learning process and acknowledges the opportunities it provides for learners to take charge of their education. One of the key strengths of Connectivism lies in its emphasis on diversity of opinions as a cornerstone of learning and knowledge. Many nursing curricula foster an environment where students are encouraged to explore various perspectives, enhancing their critical thinking skills and preparing them for the complex and multifaceted challenges they may encounter in the real world. Incorporating social media, online networks, and information databases facilitates collaboration and discussion, allowing for a richer understanding of decision-making, problem-solving, and information interpretation. Both experienced nurses and students are accessing social media for new and up-to-date information regularly; online platforms connect and nurture both nurses and students without geographical boundaries (especially during the last few years of the pandemic). Furthermore, understanding learning is more important than knowing because of the constantly changing information climate.

The principles of Connectivism put forth by Siemens and Downes underscore the significance of connections in the learning process. This perspective recognizes that learning is not confined to individuals but extends to non-human appliances and the collective intelligence in digital networks. Such an inclusive approach mirrors the collaborative nature of nursing practice, emphasizing the need for continual learning and nurturing connections. The eight principles of Connectivism further accentuate the adaptability of this pedagogical framework. By acknowledging that learning is an evolving process and that the focus should be on acquiring the skills to navigate and connect information, nursing education can better prepare students for a healthcare landscape where knowledge is continually evolving.

As educators, it’s crucial to consider the potential pros and cons of online teaching and learning practices grounded in Connectivism within the nursing curriculum. On the positive side, the flexible and accessible nature of online platforms allows students to engage with diverse perspectives and information sources. This aligns with Connectivism’s emphasis on the ever-changing information climate, where accurate and up-to-date knowledge is paramount. Nevertheless, challenges such as the digital divide, potential information overload, and the need for effective online communication skills must be addressed. As educators, we should ensure that students develop the ability to discern reliable information online and that the limitations of virtual interactions do not compromise the benefits of collaboration.

In conclusion, the nursing curriculum benefits significantly from a connectivist approach to online teaching and learning. By leveraging the principles of Connectivism, we can cultivate a learning environment that mirrors the dynamic and interconnected nature of contemporary healthcare. However, thoughtful consideration of potential challenges is crucial to harness the full potential of Connectivism in preparing nursing professionals for the complexities of their evolving roles.

References

Connectivism learning theory. Western Governors University. (2022, October 25). Retrieved from https://www.wgu.edu/blog/connectivism-learning-theory2105.html

Connectivism (Siemens, Downes). Learning Theories. (2017, February 4). Retrieved from https://learning-theories.com/connectivism-siemens-downes.html

Kovanovic, v., Joksimovic, S., Gasevic, D., Siemens, G., and Hatala, M. (2015). What public media reveals about MOOCs: A systematic analysis of news reports. British Journal of Educational Technology. 46(33), 510-527. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12277

LA # 3, constructivism

Constructivism theory suggests that students learn best when they construct their own knowledge through experience. As educators, we create opportunities for students to actively engage in learning by providing problem-solving and inquiry-based learning activities that allow them to discover and transform information through experience. Within Constructivism theory, students are active agents in knowledge acquisition through assimilation (fitting new information into an existing schema) or accommodation (revising and redeveloping an existing schema using newly acquired information).

In my current teaching and learning practice, we use inquiry-based learning (IBL), problem-based learning (PBL), reciprocal teaching, and cooperative learning to maximize learners’ participation. We also have multidisciplinary members participate in real-case scenario simulations, where pre-readings are distributed before the simulation, and participants are encouraged to lead the case scenario. All simulations are researched and evidence-based, and our goal is to create a harmonious, safe environment that allows participants to reenact the case scenario as close to reality as possible.

Constructivism has several advantages, including making content more relevant to students’ future practice, encouraging critical thinking and problem-solving skills, promoting active engagement and participation, and fostering a deep understanding of concepts. It also facilitates social interaction and collaboration in learning, which is essential in healthcare. Constructivism allows students to benefit from diverse perspectives and experiences within the group and enhances communication and teamwork skills. It also promotes leadership skills by encouraging students to be the “lead” of the simulation while solving a real-world problem and integrating knowledge from different areas, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of healthcare.

However, constructivism has disadvantages, such as designing and implementing effective PBL. Facilitators may require more time and effort to prepare resources and content suitable for the students, which determines the effectiveness of the case study. Online collaboration may also face challenges due to technical difficulties and digital literacy, and scheduling and coordinating group activities may pose logistical challenges. Some students may find it difficult to transition from lecture-based learning to PBL.

Online teaching and learning can benefit nursing study by allowing flexibility. It enables students to access class materials independently and from different locations, allows facilitators to share knowledge beyond geographical boundaries, exposes students to diverse perspectives, and facilitates interactive and collaborative activities. Online learning provides a safe and controlled environment for students to apply theoretical knowledge and analyze and synthesize material based on real-life situations. It also provides multimedia content, discussion forums, and interactive activities that can promote active learning.

However, the limitation of online learning is the lack of hands-on clinical experience crucial to nursing education. Hands-on experience includes having human face-to-face interactions with coworkers and patients, gaining experience from using physical equipment, and participating in real-world practice discussions instead of relying on internet searches.

By working collaboratively, students preparing for and presenting grand rounds and simulations would benefit the most from online teaching and learning. Preparing for grand rounds allows students to collaborate to research, present, and problem-solve with critical thinking, which fosters communication skills and teamwork. However, the downside of online projects is that it can be difficult to coordinate and communicate virtually when some students are in a different geographical location with a different time zone, and language can also be a barrier.

In conclusion, integrating constructivist principles into online nursing education can enhance the learning experience by promoting active engagement, critical thinking, and relevance to real-world practice. However, facilitators and educators need to be mindful of potential challenges such as technological limitations, the need for hands-on clinical experiences, and the importance of maintaining social interaction in the virtual learning environment. Effective implementation requires a thoughtful blend of pedagogical strategies, technology integration, and ongoing support for educators and students.

Reference

Bada, S. O., & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism learning theory: A paradigm for teaching and learning. Journal of Research & Method in Education, 5(6), 66-70.

Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). https://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index.html

Constructivism. Office of Curriculum, Assessment and Teaching Transformation – University at Buffalo. Retrieved from https://www.buffalo.edu/catt/develop/theory/constructivism.html

Schema theory. ETSU Center for Teaching Excellence. (2022, July 12). https://www.etsu.edu/teaching/resources/more_resources/schema.php

learning activity 2 – Cognitivism in the Online Environment

Nursing education is a unique field requiring a great amount of theoretical learning and an unparalleled amount of practical hands-on experience. Due to this uniqueness of knowledge, educators must apply different learning styles to ensure students’ best learning experience. Applying various teaching and learning theories is crucial for effective knowledge transfer and skill acquisition. One such theory gaining prominence is Cognitivism, which focuses on the mental processes involved in learning, such as perception, memory, and problem-solving.

Cognitivism in nursing education emphasizes the importance of active mental engagement, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills. In online nursing education, this theory is implemented through interactive modules, case studies, and simulations that challenge students to apply their theoretical knowledge to real-world scenarios. Virtual patient encounters, online clinical simulations, and collaborative problem-solving activities are all examples of how Cognitivism is integrated into the online learning environment for nursing students.

Online nursing programs based on Cognitivism principles encourage active engagement, which leads to a deeper understanding of concepts and improved critical thinking skills. The online platform also enables personalized learning experiences, allowing students to learn at their own pace and focus on areas where they may need extra support. In addition, online assessments and simulations provide immediate feedback, which helps students to improve continuously and reinforces correct practices. Virtual simulations and case studies provide a safe environment for students to practice clinical skills and decision-making, bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Online nursing education faces several challenges that may hinder students’ skill development, including limited hands-on experiences and difficulties in assessing complex cognitive skills such as critical thinking and clinical judgment. With physical safeguards in place, students might react differently in real-life situations. Additionally, some students may struggle with technological barriers or have varying levels of technological proficiency, leading to disparities in learning experiences. The startup cost for engaging in online learning can be expensive. Furthermore, online learning can be isolating for students, lacking the interpersonal connections and collaborative experiences often vital in nursing education.

The utilization of virtual patient scenarios as a learning tool for nursing students, which necessitates the application of critical thinking and knowledge-based clinical decision-making, aligns well with the principles of Cognitivism. Online platforms that facilitate collaborative problem-solving through case studies are an effective method for active engagement, where theoretical knowledge is applied to practical situations. The application of Cognitivism can be efficiently achieved by the utilization of online modules that break down intricate nursing concepts, thereby encouraging active processing and comprehension.

While Cognitivism offers valuable insights into how nursing education can be enhanced, it is essential to carefully consider the pros and cons, especially in the context of online teaching. Balancing the benefits of active engagement and personalized learning with the challenges of limited hands-on experiences and potential isolation is crucial for creating effective online nursing education programs. Integrating the principles of Cognitivism into specific online learning situations can contribute to a well-rounded and engaging nursing education experience.